How does solar panel work at home

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How does solar panel work at home

solar panel

Modern technology is becoming more and more a part of our life. No sphere of industrial activity can do without them, innovations are used in the home. Thus, alternative energy sources are increasingly being used not only on a large scale, but also for household needs. No one is surprised to see solar panels for the home. And probably many have more than once wondered how to get free energy for individual needs, how to choose such a device, whether it justifies itself.

How the solar panel is designed and how it works

Now every homeowner can independently equip an autonomous source of energy for their own use. This requires a solar panel, which will generate electricity for a private house, apartment, cottage and even for the garden.

Solar panels for private use – not a cheap pleasure. But over time, their cost pays off. The more that the prices for the systems are constantly falling.

How do solar panels work? They are a single chain of interconnected links with a structure that allows to convert the sunlight falling on their surface into electricity. Everything happens according to the principle of the photoelectric effect.

Such a sunlight conversion unit consists of several components:

  • Semiconductor material. It is formed by two tightly fitting materials that have different conductivity. Silicon (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline) can be used as such conductors. In addition to these, other chemical compounds are taken which help to achieve the necessary properties for the photoelectric effect. In order to achieve the flow of electrons from one layer to another, one layer must have an excessive amount of electrons in one layer and a lack of electrons in the other.
  • A very thin layer placed between layers of the semiconductor material. Resists the flow of electrons between layers.
  • A source of electrical power.
  • Charge controller.
  • Battery that performs the function of storing and conserving energy.
  • Inverter. Converts direct electric current, which comes from the solar panels, into alternating current.
  • Voltage stabilizer. Used to get the voltage ranges needed for the solar panel system.

The solar panel for the house works on the following principle: the energy from sunlight penetrates the plate, which, warming up, releases electrons. They, in turn, move along the conductors, and the conductors charge the batteries.

The most serious indicator of the system is considered to be its power. It is determined by taking into account the voltage and current output. The power is closely related to the intensity of the sunlight that reaches the panels. The more rays hit the panel during the day and the longer the daylight hours, the more energy the system will produce.

Knowing the set of components used and the device, you can connect your own solar panels for the country house or solar panels for apartments.

solar panel

About the advantages and disadvantages of batteries

The advantage of solar panels for the home is the following:

  • Environmentally friendly source of energy, there is no negative impact on nature.
  • Relative ease of operation.
  • Long service life: if treated with care, they will work uninterruptedly for decades.

Of the disadvantages allocate such factors:

  • Low coefficient of performance. For a solar panel for giving the necessary electricity for a family of 3 or 4 people who consume 200 kilowatts per month, then, according to average calculations, you need to install plates with an area of 12 m².
  • Slow payback with a sufficiently high cost.
  • To install solar panels for a private home on your own, you need to be well versed in the complex assembly and debugging of the work. For their installation it is better to hire professionals.

All these points should be taken into account before deciding to purchase solar panels for your needs.

What else to look out for

Want to make a fully autonomous home with solar panels and use alternative electricity? It is worth taking into account a few important factors that will help determine the final decision, whether the solar panel will bring the effect on your private home, you are counting on.

The nature of the terrain

First of all, you should consider the terrain where your homeownership is located. This will affect the power output of the battery. If the house is surrounded by tall trees or high-rise buildings, the solar panels will not be able to work at full capacity.

In conditions of partial shading or incomplete lighting better function polycrystalline panels, but monocrystalline will not be able to produce energy. Therefore, for the dacha with the presence of a garden plot, where there are tall garden trees, to take a panel on the monocrystals is inappropriate.


The sun is the source from which the solar panel system draws its energy. Therefore, you should consider the climatic conditions of the region in which the house is located. Namely, how many sunny days there are at different times of the year.

The amount of solar energy is called insolation, calculated using the formula: kW/m²/number of days. This number determines how much sunlight will reach the panels to become electricity. A large number means a large amount of energy received from solar panels for the home. In order to achieve the required power output at low insolation, more coverage of the cottage surface with panels will be needed.

The real need for energy

You should calculate how much energy you need to cover all your needs. This figure determines how much coverage you need. It is best to entrust such calculations to professionals.

If we talk about the most approximate figures, it turns out that, on average, one house needs 62 panels with an area of 65 m².


When purchasing a battery for a private home, you need to be prepared to have to carry out its maintenance by your own efforts. If the panels are installed correctly, they will last a long time without failing. But it is the owners themselves who will have to take care of their cleanliness.

Precipitation in the form of snow, dust, bird excrement, and other contaminants close the access of sunlight to the panels. Electricity supply to the house will be significantly reduced under such conditions. To clean the system is used watering with a hose. If the solar panel for the apartment is placed on the balcony, care in this case is much easier than for those located in the house on the roof.

You should also monitor the serviceability of all elements.


The service life of solar panels reaches 50 years, auxiliary components (controllers and inverters) – up to 20 years, the battery will last up to 10 years, taking into account its type and conditions of use.

It is worth thinking about the disposal of spent cells. Few people accept used solar modules for recycling, but still the demand for them is increasing every year. Recycling will give them a new life, they will find their worthy use. Used solar panels in the country house will be a good alternative to the usual electricity.

The field of alternative electricity is constantly evolving, improving existing technology. It is worth hoping for a reduction in the cost of modern developments and their availability in the future for those who wish to have their own independent source of energy.